- 1 Brief history
- 2 =
- 2.1.1 Although visited by Phoenicians, Malays and Arab sailors who navigated the Indian Ocean in the 9th century already knew about the Seychelles archipelago. A document dating from 851 already mentioned the Maldives and “some islands further away”. In 1502 Vasco da Gama, on his way to the indies, sighted some “exterior islands” which were called ‘the Amirantes’ in his honour, as he was the admiral of his fleet. Portuguese navigators thereafter only used the island to replenish their stocks. Their maps also mention “interior islands” which were named As Sete Irmas, The Seven Sisters. In 1609 a ship from the British East India Company was caught in a storm and anchored in front of Mahé. One of its passengers gave the first description, the Seychelles remained largely uninhabited until the 17th century.
- 2.2 The start of a colony
- 2.3 The Bonaparte Exiles
- 2.4 British Supremacy
- 2.5 A British Colony
- 2.5.1 Isle de France -Mauritius
- 2.5.2 The Relevancy
- 2.5.3 Early political movements
- 2.5.4 1964-1976
- 2.5.5 1977-1992
- 2.5.6 Mauritius - Seychelles bilateral relation 1977 to 1986
- 2.5.7 Foreign relations of Seychelles
- 2.5.8 Foreign relations of Mauritius
- 2.5.9 OAU - Seychelles dynamic relation in contrast to Mauritius
- 2.6 Hong Kong of East Africa Zanzibar not Mauritius
- 3 Lalit : 40 ans de la grève d’août 1979
- 3.1 The benefits and advantage of that SIROP program 1986 to Mauritius
- 3.2 Economic meltdown of 1995 - using that program to create a greater working for the Indian Ocean Nations in the form of Indian Ocean Rim Association
- 3.3 Seychelles and Mauritius sign Landmark Treaties for joint management of continental Shelf 2012 and
- 3.3.1 A number of small-island and developing member countries face serious obstacles to managing and securing the benefits that may be associated with the management of ocean space, including the development of potentially lucrative marine resources.
- 3.3.2 Mauritius and Seychelles to jointly manage extended continental shelf
- 3.3.3 Seychelles President James Michel and Mauritian Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam have signed
- 3.3.4 two important treaties today, to share the management of the continental shelf of the Mascarene Plateau Region. As a result Seychelles and Mauritius now have joint jurisdiction over an additional area of 396,000 sq. kilometers.
- 3.3.5 Seychelles microcontinent
- 3.4 BTI 2018 | Mauritius Country Report
- 3.5 SIROP - NEOM 2017 Mauritius issues
Commercial ships from the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, or France frequently navigated across the Indian Ocean and so pirates became very interested in the area. Pirates and privateers set up bases on the islands. They seized shiploads of goods, precious stones, silver and gold. The Seychelles archipelago became the ideal place for them to anchor their ships and to hide their treasures. There’s a legend about the French corsair named La Buse whicht says that he hid his treasure somewhere in Mahé Island. Another legend says that another French corsair named Jean-François Hodoul buried his treasure in Silhouette Island. It is said that immense treasures are buried in Frégate Island: pirate tombs and lots of old coins were discovered there.
The nearby Isle de France, nowadays named Mauritius, saw fast development under the management of its new governor, Mahé de La Bourdonnais. In 1742, he sent an expedition to the archipelago. Lazare Picaut, the captain of that expedition, set foot on an island, which he named île d’Abondance and is now called Mahé. A second expedition is organised in 1744 and Lazare Picault landed on the opposite coast, near the place where the town of Victoria is located. He renamed the archipelago the La Bourdonnais Islands and île d’Abondance was renamed Mahé. The next expedition was led by Corneille Nicolas Morphey in 1756. He erected a rock engraved with the coats of arms of the king of France on the coast near the town of Victoria. Morphey renamed the archipelago as the Seychelles, in honour of France’s minister of finance, Moreau de Séchelles.
The start of a colony
In 1768, Mahé and the islands “that can be seen and beyond” are declared French Colonies. An engineer, Brayer du Barré, gets the authorisation to start a colony on the island of Saint-Anne. 12 settlers, 8 african slaves and 5 Indians set foot on the island in 1770. Two years later, they go back to Mauritius, almost starving. Pierre Poivre, the new governor of Mauritius sets up a royal garden in Anse Royale in Mahé to acclimatize spice trees.
The Bonaparte Exiles
On the 24th of December 1800, the future French Emperor was the target of an attack in Paris on Saint-Nicaise Street. His minister of the Interior, Fouché, comes up with a list of suspects. They are deported to the faraway Seychelles. 130 Jacobins were thus forcefully embarked on La Flèche and La Chiffonne. Six months later, 32 more exiled arrived in Mahé, followed by about 30 more on the 3rd of September. Most of them would start a new life in the Seychelles. In 1803, a census would enumerate 215 white people, 1820 African slaves and 86 freed men.
The old Ilse de france became a British colony and was named Mauritius. Its new governor, Robert Farquhar, soon sent a representative to the archipelago. Under pressure, the inhabitants of the Seychelles pledge allegiance to the British crown. In 1814, the Paris treaty made this situation official. Simultaneously, the fall in the price of cotton puts a dent in the local economy. The abolition of slavery which was voted in London in 1814, accentuates the Seychelles’ economic difficulties. Big landowners start cultivating coconut trees, which is less labour-intensive. They start producing coconut oil. Freed slaves, coming mainly from the British colonies of Africa, start arriving in the archipelago to be recruited in coconut plantations. The Seychelles prospers again, despite natural calamities like excessive rainfall and storms which caused a lot of damage. The Seychelles starts seeking its emancipation from Mauritian authorities. She will have to wait until 1903 to gain its status as an autonomous colony.
A British Colony
Sir Ernest Bickhame Sweet-Escott, the first British governor of the Seychelles decided to install a replica of the Big Ben tower in the centre of the capital of the Seychelles, Victoria. The First World War took a toll on the archipelago. By the end of the conflict, Mahé is equipped with electricity and the telephone. The 1929 financial crisis strikes the Seychelles just when it was beginning to recover. The economy of the Seychelles continues to stagnate during the Second World War. The archipelago becomes a backup supply base for the allies. Starting from 1944, London implements a series of reforms in education and public health. The people of the Seychelles are increasingly dissatisfied with the government and start talking about independence. Political parties are formed. In 1967, universal suffrage is introduced.
Isle de France -Mauritius
Isle de France (Île de France in modern French) was the name of the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius and its dependent territories between 1715 and 1810, when the area was under the French East India Company and part of France's empire. Under the French, the island witnessed major changes. The increasing importance of agriculture led to the importation of slaves and the undertaking of vast infrastructural works that transformed Port Louis into a major capital, port, warehousing, and commercial centre.
During the Napoleonic wars, Île de France became a base from which the French navy, including squadrons under Rear AdmiralLinois or Commodore Jacques Hamelin, and corsairs such as Robert Surcouf, organised raids on British merchant ships. The raids (see Battle of Pulo Aura and Mauritius campaign of 1809–1811) continued until 1810 when the British sent a strong expedition to capture the island. The first British attempt, in August 1810, to attack Grand Port resulted in a French victory, one celebrated on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. A subsequent and much larger attack launched in December of the same year from Rodrigues, which had been captured a year earlier, was successful. The British landed in large numbers in the north of the island and rapidly overpowered the French, who capitulated (see Invasion of Isle de France). In the Treaty of Paris (1814), the French ceded Île de France together with its territories including the Chagos Archipelago, Rodrigues, Seychelles, Agaléga, Tromelin and Cargados Carajos to Great Britain. The island then reverted to its former name, 'Mauritius'.
The French government turned over the administration of Mauritius to the French East India Company, but the island remained bereft of Europeans until 1721. Furthermore, until 1735, Île de France was administered from Île Bourbon, now known as Réunion.
By 1726, the company had made land grants to colonists, soldiers and workers. The grants' covenants specified that recipients of the grants who could not cultivate their land for a period of 3 years would lose them. Each colonist was given 20 slaves and in return had to pay yearly one tenth of their production to the French East India Company. The attempt to develop agriculture resulted in an increasing demand for labour.
According to Lougnon, 156 ships called at Mauritius between 1721 and 1735, prior to the arrival of Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais, most of them being Company ships. Slave traders brought a total of 650 slaves to Mauritius from Madagascar, Mozambique, India and West Africa.
International trade, in particular long-distance trade, grew in the 18th century and by the 1780s, France was the largest trading maritime power in Europe. The total value of French long-distance trade with Africa, Asia, America and re-exports to the rest of Europe was £25 million, whereas Britain's trade amounted to only £20 million. This state of affairs explained the growing importance of Port Louis as a centre of entrepôt trade. Among the French colonists, the lure of easy money and the importance of commercial activities contributed to their lack of interest in agriculture. Slave trade, both legal and illegal, was an important aspect of the French international trade in the Indian Ocean. A class of traders and merchants developed and thrived.
The Indian Ocean, Island like the West Indies had the same European approach to family connection, society, business, economy, religious, Justice practice, education which they brought with them from Europe as first settlers and founding fathers. Over the past 50 year the manner the thematic have been presented.
Almost until Mauritius gained its Independence the fight to attain it independence 1968, its understanding and notion of democracy, Justice and Freedom - these two nations had a very close working - let alone the facts that be it in Mauritius, Seychelles, Reunion the extended families, connections, relatives inter marriage. Important example the issues of the Chagos Islands how they were managed by those Families and Company from Seychelles because of such understanding and practices. With Independence these would change. Travel between those Island nation curtailed, impeded prevented the relation to intensify until the arrival of the Airline and Airport, in spite of the undersea Cable system these were reserved for the elite and important institution of the respective nation. As such their politic and those who controlled them and their then media. The necessity to take due note, the impacts of British Colonial politics in these workings, influencing issues.
In the early Seychelles politic aspiration for changes and emancipation 1950 -1960, those founding and early pioneers of our politic, they would often refer to events in Mauritius, how politic was being done there and those involved. They also took note of the politic, economy of the region be it Africa/East Africa, Asia, South Africa, Gulf region - India was not a political example of Seychelles pre independence, it did take note of events, development in North Africa and the Gulf region, beside Europe. What was of paramount importance was the Cold War relation of the West including NATO, France politic and the politic of the USSR, the Communist Block and its ideologies, practices, impacts and consequences The decolonisation process of Africa in particular.
Early political movements
By the end of the World War I, the population of Seychelles was 24,000, and they were feeling somewhat neglected by Whitehall. There was agitation from the newly formed Planters Association for greater representation in the governance of Seychelles affairs. After 1929 a more liberal flow of funds was ensured by the Colonial Development Act, but it was a time of economic depression; the price of copra was falling and so were wages. Workers petitioned the government about their poor working conditions and the burden of tax they had to bear. Governor Sir Arthur Grimble instigated some reforms, exempting lower income groups from taxation, He was keen to create model housing and distribute smallholdings for the landless. Sadly, many of this reforms were not approved until World War II had broken out, and everything was put on hold.
The Planters Association lobbied for the rich white land owners, but until 1937 those who worked for them had no voice. The League of Coloured Peoples was formed to demand a minimum wage, a wage tribunal and free health care for all.
The first political party, the Taxpayers Association, was formed in 1939. A British governor described it as "the embodiment of every reactionary force in Seychelles", and it was entirely concerned with protecting the interests of the plantocracy. After the war, they also benefited by being granted the vote, which was limited to literate property owners; just 2,000 in a population of 36,000. At the first elections in 1948, most of those elected to the Legislative Council were predictably members of the Planters and Taxpayers Association.
It was not until 1964 that any new political movements were created. In that year, the Seychelles People's United Party (SPUP) was formed. Led by France Albert Rene, they campaigned for independence from Britain. James Mancham's Seychelles Democratic Party (DP), created the same year, by contrast wanted closer integration with Britain.
Britain was cool on the idea of integration, while opinion in Seychelles appeared to be split. At the first election under universal adult suffrage each party gained three seats with Mancham claiming victory through the support of an independent. Under the new constitution, Mancham became the Chief Minister of the colony. Subsequent elections in 1970 and 1974 gave Mancham a small majority in votes, but a large one in seats, through the "first past the post" voting system. At the April 1974 elections, the DP increased its majority in the Legislative Assembly by three seats, gaining all but two of the fifteen seats with only 52% of the popular vote.
Meanwhile, Britain's lack of enthusiasm for integration convinced Mancham to join Rene in calling for independence. The DP and SPUP formed a coalition government in June 1975 to lead Seychelles to independence. The British Government was asked to appoint an electoral review commission so that divergent views on the electoral system and composition of the legislature could be reconciled. As a result, ten seats were added to the Legislative Assembly, five to be nominated by each party. A cabinet of ministers also was formed consisting of eight members of the DP and four of the SPUP, with Chief Minister Mancham becoming Prime Minister. With independence on 29 June 1976, Mancham assumed the office of president and René became Prime Minister.
What many who edit and write about the history of Seychelles refuse and have failed to write those who had wanted a unilateral Independence for Seychelles and the big why. In writing that historic SIROP program the need to take note of those political events, forgotten, buried, censored and process which both leading political parties, Leadership refused to address the world and the public for their own sake and reasons. One year later after its Independence, the much acclaimed economic, social, education , democratic, long term development plans for the Island nation - the coup d'etat of 5th June 1977, which would change all these and Seychelles nation working for ever in spite of that Historic SIROP program 1986/87. In Mauritian the important political process and the coming to Powers of the former workers, slaves the planters had introduced to build the Sugar and Agriculture Industry/Economy of Mauritius. The new politicians of Mauritius.
Again those who write the history of Seychelles an Mauritius the need to note some of the statistics, until Independence, Seychelles those families of none white decent their numbers and very important the Chagos/Island workers recruited from Seychelles to go and work on those Islands, their lives, social status, family situation, politic. How they influenced and impacted Seychelles economy and society, then 1976/77.
Less than one year after independence, on 5 June 1977, with James Mancham in London to attend the Commonwealth Conference, a small group of Rene's supporters and Tanzanian soldiers staged a coup and installed Rene as President. New elections were called in 1979 with Rene against barrister Robert Frichot. A one-party socialist state was established. Mancham was to remain in exile for 15 years.
On 25 November 1981 a force of mercenaries led by "Mad" Mike Hoare attempted to take over the islands, but were discovered at the airport. They briefly took over the tower, but hijacked an Air India flight and fled to South Africa where they were arrested and charged.
In August 1982, mutineers in the Seychelles Army, maintaining loyalty to Rene but in revolt against alleged conditions in the service, took over the radio station. They were overcome by Tanzanian troops, whose intervention was requested by Rene.
In November 1985, Gérard Hoarau, a prominent exiled opponent of Rene was shot and killed by an unidentified gunman on the doorstep of his London home. Hoareau's supporters claimed the Seychelles Government was responsible for the shooting but this was denied and the murder case never solved.
However, for the most part Rene ruled throughout this period with underground opposition at home. He was elected unopposed at further elections in 1983 and 1987. Rene used Seychelles' strategic importance to obtain significant help from both superpowers of the period without having to commit himself to either. With a suppressed opposition, he was able to power through much needed social reforms. Note - this classified 1983, India Mauritius relation and they did the same with Seychelles, what they have written and a good deal of misinformation)
In February 1992, Conrad Greslé, a prominent local businessman and democracy activist was arrested and charged with treason for planning to overthrow the Seychelles Government with the help of foreign mercenaries and with alleged CIA involvement. This was the last attempt to overthrow the Seychelles Government by force.
Meanwhile one third of the population had fled in exile or forces in exile, the terrible benchmark of the UN/UNHCR in their reporting, along many other international organisation accomplice, including the Commonwealth - some estimated 25,000 had gone in exile become refugees. In Mauritius the respective position.
Mauritius - Seychelles bilateral relation 1977 to 1986
We lack the human resource to do proper research in spite of that SIROP program important role in giving the world the WWW. We have found this article/book written by World Bank and UN experts on Seychelles, the Indian ocean, reference page 1- 10, to note the UN/World Bank economic view of the world the mega banking/financial corruption the many very big financial institutions which went bust and the core of the problem how the UN and world Bank view the issues. Those who had ruthless abused and manipulated that SIROP program the wars and conflicts again UN reporting. Again this publication by UNRISD-Commonwealth Secretariat
Foreign relations of Seychelles
Seychelles follows a policy of what it describes as "positive" nonalignment and strongly supports the principle of reduced superpower presence in the Indian Ocean. The Seychelles government is one of the proponents of the Indian Ocean zone of peace concept and it has promoted an end to the United States presence on Diego Garcia. The country has adopted a pragmatic policy, however, and serves as an important rest and recreation stop for US ships serving in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Seychelles' foreign policy position has placed it generally toward the left of the spectrum within the Non-Aligned Movement. Russia, the United Kingdom, France, India, the People's Republic of China, Libya and Cuba maintain embassies in Victoria.
Foreign relations of Mauritius
Mauritius has strong and friendly relations with the West, as well as with South Asian countries and the countries of southern and eastern Africa. It is a member of the World Trade Organization, the Commonwealth of Nations, La Francophonie, the African Union, the Southern Africa Development Community, the Indian Ocean Commission, COMESA, and the recently formed Indian Ocean Rim Association. Her Majesty Elizabeth II was the head of state of Mauritius.
OAU - Seychelles dynamic relation in contrast to Mauritius
Between 1979 and 1993, Seychelles was governed under a single-party socialist system. President René, who had assumed power in a military coup d'état in 1977, had been the sole candidate in the presidential elections of 1979, 1984, and 1989, each time winning an affirmative vote of more than 90 percent.
The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; French: Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with 32 signatory governments. One of the main heads for OAU's establishment was Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. It was disbanded on 9 July 2002 by its last chairperson, South African President Thabo Mbeki, and replaced by the African Union (AU). Some of the key aims of the OAU were to encourage political and economic integration among member states, and to eradicate colonialism and neo-colonialism from the African continent. Although it achieved some success, there were also differences of opinion as to how that was going to be achieved.
We have addressed the issues of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Royal Institute for Strategic studies, the other reality which never got reported or mentioned in some of those Study, publications -some preferred to term it the Seychelles Illuminati workings - long list of economic issues, military incidents, government changes, coup d'etat, state scandals linked associated with Seychelles, be it the National government or the many exile refugees faction across the world and Europe - from north to southern Africa. Again the reason for the CERN/WWW, because those who chose to manage information, control information what they were publishing and writing and the other reality, the double standard and benchmark. The connection, workings do not just get invented, the take time, resources, both money, knowledge, capacity and given Africa very complicated workings the many political person and entities and Africa OAU Institutions. That SIROP program role/function was to change these, bring new light to those issues. Across Africa the many Truth Commission etc., and in Seychelles the current Truth commission.
Mauritius became independent on 12 March 1968, and was then said to be the paradigm of the small isolated, poor, dependent country, only emerging from the colonial era to fall immediately into neocolonialism – the Third World's Third World.
Mauritius has not acceded to the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol (hereinafter jointly referred to as the 1951 Convention). Mauritius has also not acceded to the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (hereinafter referred to as the 1954 Convention) and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (hereinafter referred to the 1961 Convention). On 10 September 1969 Mauritius signed, but has yet to ratify, the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa commonly referred to as the the OAU Convention.
Mauritius South Africa Cold War - Apartheid relation. From 1968 - to 1991/92, the number of Mauritian national who left Mauritius for South Africa mostly white/mix. Their numbers were far greater than Seychelles. The political, economic and social argument, motives. The raging Cold War conflicts across Africa, events and causes,independence politic.The important role they play in helping, contribution to building Mauritius modern economy. The Mauritius media or others scant mention. In UK and Australia, the Mauritian diaspora those who have had the courage to term percentage of them exiles.
Considered part of Africa geographically, Mauritius has friendly relations with other African states in the region, particularly South Africa, by far its largest continental trading partner. Mauritian investors are gradually entering African markets, notably Madagascar and Mozambique. Mauritius coordinates much of its foreign policy with the Southern Africa Development Community and the Organisation of African Unity. The country is also a member of the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA).
The other factors, namely lack of historically solidified boundaries, low level of economic development and a high incidence of non-democratic regimes, were relatively similar between the cases. These variable-configurations lend support to the claim that the OAU contributed to a relatively low incidence of interstate wars in Africa.
Under Jugnauth, Mauritius fostered strong, friendly relations with the West, with India, and with southern and eastern African nations. The country belongs to the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Commonwealth, the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), the Indian Ocean Commission, the Community of Eastern and South African States (COMESA), and the Indian Ocean Rim Association. Jugnauth was also involved in 2002 in implementing the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). Jugnauth is known as a vocal advocate of developing countries, and has called on developed countries to honour their commitments of aid.
Hong Kong of East Africa Zanzibar not Mauritius
Zanzibar the preferred Colonial country for a Hong Kong style system for East Africa, not Mauritius, Pre Independence Colonial politic 1968. After the Zanzibar Revolution, events, the many British expats who fled Zanzibar to Seychelles and elsewhere, their story and views of development and things, history. The other Zanzibar - As such , Sir James Mancham knew Mauritius, its politic and economy very well as well as his many Ministers, those who advised him at the time. His Investment long term politic and political statement making Sechelles Seychelles the Switzerland of the Indian Ocean. After being overthrown in London , Europe his advocacy and the efforts to change Seychelles One party system by military means, those who would have supported his economic plan and vision. Beside the long term politic of Britain and the USA East of Suez when everything failed the creation and conception of BIOT to defend long term strategic military economic interests and geopolitical arguments.
As per the Colonial long term plan for the Indian Ocean and East Africa - Zanzibar, to fight off Communism and the political fashion, aspiration, call for nation to control their own destiny, for Independence - Zanzibar had been view as the best candidate for/a the Hong Kong style of economic and business development, social system, politic of East Africa not Mauritius. This is not just private source information, we did some research at the Royal Institute for Strategic Studies and the International Institute for Strategic studies then 1981, beside the taboo issues then London 1981 - Royal United Services Institute, in the eventual change of Seychelles back to a free country, nation, multiparty politic and economy, business, investment model. ( Again the debacles, issue of that SIROP program, CERN/WWW, the availability of information today from many other leading Institute for Strategic Studies, including those of the Region of Indian Ocean). Making a great political statement promise and quite another having a vision and building that vision. The marked contrast of President FA Rene politic, economic, development and social politic. Which reflected and was very similar to that of Zanzibar and Tanganyika after the 1977, 5th June coup d'etat. The new Tanzania, Zanzibar economy, politic and social development impacted, influenced and driven by that historic 1986/87 SIROP program.
Cold War Indian Ocean bilateral, economic argument for a regional body 1978
Given the development of 5th June, 1977 the many in Europe who became aware of the wake up call, that the political argument for those involved to take, change Seychelles democratic elected government by force, the serious impacts and fall out, the USA/West military budget
build up, military conflict intensification, nuclearisation, to confront the Communism threats, the Soviet Block and the COMECON, China, the Alliance - the extreme socialist dictatorial politic and economic impacts and fallout. The strategic importance, paramount relevancy to global security, Trade, raw material/mineral and the oil, energy route. With it the grave refugees crises, force displacement. Then nations politic of the Indian Ocean and the eventual threats in Mauritius. Across the European Capitals the numerous groups of individual and their leading institutions, among them the Pan European Union who had decided to take a stand. This include Vienna - Austria, in spite of it very Neutral politic, position - stand with many of the last second world war political issues still very fresh - concerning. Beside OPEC and the Atomic energy Office/Secretariat. The argument to build the International Conference Centre to House war the UN/UNIDO/World Bank, our then contributions, impute in the issues - its workings in the Indian Ocean. To note the important diplomatic representation of the West in Vienna 1978 - the Second world war outcome, including the USSR.
This Wikia topic article is written primarily with the thought of pointing out, the complex workings, disparity be they the Mauritian Diaspora of 1985/86, their communities in London, Embassy, Mauritius Nation working its many aspect in the Indian Ocean of Cold War, Seychelles, Madagascar, Comore, Reunion - the Srilanka, Maldive and BIOT. Over the past 30 years what the respective media have written and not written, other officials sources, institutions their respective view of the time, events and process. The many recent publication by academicians, leading world and Africa, American, Asian institutions specialise in such document writing the important disparity.
In London, Cold War UK, Lady Thatcher government, Labour party, the Liberal SDP politic, Northern Ireland politic and spillover in London - the ethnic communities working your then NCVO, the VSC, the very many Refugees and exiles communities in London, the unemployment situation -the statements from leading UN,World Bank officials on the challenge of Brain drain of nations, those who were arguing and promoting the concept by the Diaspora communities , those exile/refugees community how they can help build and contribute to the economy and development of their respective host nation meaning Britain given their past position and knowledge, people and democracy by engaging, contributing - as well as their mother and father lands not just challenging and looking at ways to change the government and political system which took and required a good deal of energy and resources, time. The issue of setting up the first Black Bank in London we had been involved, those ex Minister from Ghana and my own UNIDO/World Bank and IMF issues, supported/in contact with then Prof Dr Micheal Hofmann and Prof Von Hayak, those for L'ena in France, those from Italy and Germany. Sir James Mancham then and Dr DeGraft Johnson and others. Setting up special finance vehicles, business promotion vehicles to empower them, more important how they can use the British system, gear, leverage, synergize and drive business in their home country the political and economic abuse and very negative benchmark with developed. The many Ethnic and Refugees who had got together to promote this concept, beside fighting the many problematic, challenges, Racism, inequality in Britain and London, their Rights and the world. - beside their was a grave economic situation in Britain - across Europe then, Britain was the sick man of Europe, the decolonisation process and loosing most of its overseas revenue and income, the need to find new ways, method and politic to generate and promote these issues taking in mind the past Colonial business system and those who managed and led them, the Institutions. Lady Thatcher government had put together the MSC employment and Job creation concept, Training, the terrible debate in the Common and the Lords and legislation, media write up, the Ethnic communities and the Refugees communities debate and networking, the psychosis. In Mauritius
then 1985/86, it politic and economy - yes Mauritius was very importantly know for its sugar, the politic and media coverage, by then my own ability and capacity to impute and intervene in those Cartel working not just Mauritius, this included Sugar Industry and Oil, Finance, Steel and banking sector in Europe and the USA, South Africa, some of the African countries, the Gulf Region, Asia , the USA and Australia and we were often reminded at meeting and Training, that the Queen and the Royal Family had to use Mauritius sugar in their tea and coffee. in 1985/86, Mauritius textile, agriculture sector and light Industry, beside the Tourism Industry.
In Seychelles the economy had hit the wall or the bumper as they say, the Tourist Industry was buoyant, the Offshore and Free-zone, the government President FA Rene and Mr Mario Ricci and other like Mr Guy Morel, its fishing Industry, the Oil Transshipment was working modestly, the UN/world Bank and UNIDO statistics, OECD. The Merchants were almost all near bankrupt because/on account of the government Marxist Central plan economy and the way business was managed and ran, government monopoly. Very important events in Europe, the former COMECON< USSR, Will add a few reference article, south Africa, the OAU, the Gulf State. Having stated the working of the refugees , exile and ethnic communities then London 1985/86, the many underground movements, they had linked up to monitor, input and drive, support events in their country. London, Paris was the source, of the important synergy, dynamic driving those politic thematic and media thematic, protest and acts of rebellion and unrest's. Organisation like AHRAG, Refugee Forum, Ealing Forum beside BRC, several others impute. Those communities and refugee groups own dynamic projects and programs. Seychelles exiles/refugees had it own unique/uniqueness. The Britain of Lady Thatcher was for a complete removal of FA Rene government/boycott, the USA of President Reagan wanted worse its view against Communist government and dictator governments, their benchmark and as such Seychelles was under extreme pressure, politically, and economically . In Seychelles, the underground Movement they had linked up with those workings in London, the many factions - the many Mauritian individual s who attended some of our functions and those functions of their we attended, how we share issues and discussed. In London the Mauritius business Community - at the meeting of the MSC or Community Business promotion, Training organised by British Refugee council, several Ghana former Ministers participation ex Officials of other government in exile - I /we use to point out the example of Mauritius business community, the Asian Community who had fled Uganda, Tanganyika and Zanzibar and Kenya. Prior to coming in exile in London had been involved in Business and Project consultant, Commodity Trading, acquisition for government, Trading and Finance on Europe and International level. How I applied those experience and knowledge beside my Training in the field of High Interdisciplinary Management, very few knew anything about this discipline. My contribution in some of the issues of Mrs Thatcher government selling British Silvers. , Computer company and IT, the process to achieve this and then what was reported and written. Had Seychelles changed by 1985 involving a military or coup d'etat, economic development in Mauritius, Africa, India< Pakistan, the Gulf Region, Asia, Australia, Europe, Latin america, the USA, Russia and China very different and the world as we know it today. The prevailing Plans was to topple the government, arrest , punish those they judge punishable, form a transition Military government and from there build their economic plan - there were no economic linkage, leveraging or other dynamics plans and involved or proposed. In spite of then COI - Indian ocean Commission 1985, In Mauritius and the region they would have had to cope/put up with the political fall out, event and changes - most important there would not have been the major economic revamping, synergy, gearing and leveraging mechanism in place to drive its economic changes, it would have been very very different. The same for south Africa President Nelson Mandela never come to Office, and its apartheid politic and economy, the changing process very different. Not to mention the Gulf Region Nations economy UAE, Qatar, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan economic development very different. What about the USSR and China, Latin america, Australia and Canada , the very USA. With all the important available academic resources, diplomatic, scientific and education nobody to date have taken the time and efforts to think out and write about the other scenario, The Political Stand off between the USSR and the West/US/NATO existed, the COMECON and Warsaw Pact system. We may have ended by experiencing a major world conflict if not nuclear. The world would not have got the WWW and CERN very different, Europe enlargement politic very different, the ICC, International Criminal Court not existed - In Seychelles a government led by Mr Gerard Hoareau and those individuals as Ministers. Sir James Mancham his fate very different. All the great talk of the Blue Economy not existed and the many UN , World bank, IMF, commonwealth and Francophone working very different. The International Space Station not existed in the current form. North Africa very different the fate of President Qaddafi and Saddam Hussein , The African Union not existed in its current form, the Francophone organisation and the global communication very very different. The Channel Tunnel may not have been build or much later - some of the world leading Development and infrastructures.Just a note all or most of the politicians leading that G7 in Biarritz would not have been there /in Office. The politics and events in Mauritius very different - its economy. Britexit nightmare and its gravity not existed.
The benefits and advantage of that SIROP program 1986 to Mauritius
The years following the 1983 elections were marked by an endless succession of intra- and inter-party feuds as well as scandals involving high government members and officials in corruption, fraud and drug trafficking. Within months of taking office, the Alliance began a process of fragmentation that by 1986 left the government without a working majority in parliament. When in February 1984, the MLP (Mauritius Labour Party) left the government, 11 of its MPs continued to support the government and formed a faction within the MLP called the Rassemblement des Travaillistes Mauriciens (RTM). Upon proroguing parliament in November 1986, Jugnauth agreed that an election was necessary. extract Wikipedia
Parliament was dissolved on 3 July, and the election date set for 30 August 1987, one year ahead of schedule. Campaigning started on 22 July 1987. The campaign was fought intensely but with less bitterness and blatant communal hostility than had been the case in the past. Jugnauth's Alliance fought the election with his MSM (Militant Socialist Movement), Duval's MPSD (Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate), and both major factions of the MLP, the one led by Satcam Boolell and the RTM. The MMM allied itself with two small parties, the Mouvement Travailliste Démocrat (RTD) and the Front des Travailleurs Socialiste (FTS). A total of 639 488 voters were registered (approximately 60% of the total population) and of these, 546 623 (85.5%) cast their votes. A total of 359 candidates ran for the 62 elected seats. The ballot, like the electoral campaign, was held in an impassioned atmosphere, but there were no serious incidents. During the election campaign, the ruling MSM/MLP/PMSD alliance was known as the Sun (Soleil) and the opposing union (composed of MMM/MTD/FTS) as the Heart (Coeur) after their respective emblems.
The office of Governor General which was representative of the Queen of Mauritius, Elizabeth II. The office of Governor General was occupied by Sir Dayandranath Burrenchobay, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam and Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo was Governor General from 1986 to 11 March 1992, he became the first President of the Republic on 12 March 1992 and left office on 30 June 1992.
Economic History of Mauritius - Mauritius remained under British control until 1968 when the Republic of ... Under British control the economy of Mauritius was primarily sugar cane production.
[https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1109215Mauritius%20National%20Report.pdf National Report of the Republic of Mauritius]
In 1986 Mauritius had at three well established Higher Education, University, several excellent colleges producing excellent brains and its Justice, Judiciary and Legal system very modern and advanced compared to Seychelles the cause of the revolution and One Party system, autocratic government.
In 1986, Mauritius was not a Republic, the Queen acted as Head of State and as such some of the more complex and complicated economics issues were curtailed, to implement and engage. PM Jugnauth and President F A Rene as well and Opposition Leader Mr Paul Beranger had an excellent relation with him and his government. The #Cold War political situation which prevailed in spite of the commonwealth, the Francophone, the None 'Aligned, the OAU, the UN/ the Situation with South Africa very concerning. The USSR, COMECON had not changed. We did not go to the UN with that historic program , however developed communication and exchanged ideas and references, guidance, the case of the USA was very different we had shared many of previous political changes economic issues with the USA high parties the importance relevancy of that program, their vies, advice and guidance was paramount even if it was our program and ideas, The vast economic and financial complexities and bilateral workings of that program if it was to be implemented, the Indian ocean role of the USA, the Gulf region, Africa and Asia in particular. How the $500 or $800 millions would be raise, contributions and other complex financials. The greater global financial complication if President Gorbachev would accept and agree the idea, Those in china , Europe many Leaders, their governments, those from NATO the two clubs of the OAU, the South Africa in particular, Canada, Australia, Japan. India was not a priority nor Pakistan safe their politic was importance.The IMF, World Bank people the UNIDO. We engaged a number of Latin American and Caribbean State Leaders their national Development and CARICOM system was far advanced those the Indian ocean their many Offshore /free zone. It required looking at the long term scenario 10/15 year of global development economic and other aspects and the Finance and Banking - growth scenario and forecast and how some of these development would be financed and driven, leveraged and other impacting issues and environmental. It require to look at the changing of the COMECON, the USSR Economy, China, Africa, Latin america then 1986, the vested Interests of those Nations and their politics, the conflicts and military issues. Putting in place a system to manage it.this process - Communication, information flow. The military challenges which was were encountered those who opposed and were recalcitrant, the changing system of the government and those new politician coming in. In this context we planned out a scenario for Mauritius economy, growth, role and politic. We enlisted those in Mauritius who had interests and would support such a plan and its implementation. the important benefits to them, their companies and entities. Very important their role in supporting this program in Seychelles as we did not have the expertise and man power - capacity what ensued. President FA Rene and his officials were kept in the know and those then leading politicians and the nations other relevant Institutions - Sir James Mancham was well informed too, Mauritius Justice officials. The OAU, the Commonwealth the Francophone and the UN. The media may not have been informed in writing they knew what was gong on and that this Program existed and vast many issues. For this reason for some 20 years have been writing to the UN, the EU help report on what took lace and events their refusal - the decision to put in place the Truth Committee of the National Assembly and the National Truth Commission etc., The many communication to the Justice of Mauritius over the years, some of the Institutions, government Political leaders, Leading Lawyers, NGO, the Church officials. The media in writing.
Economic meltdown of 1995 - using that program to create a greater working for the Indian Ocean Nations in the form of Indian Ocean Rim Association
We had been based/residing at Caple court Country club overlooking Dover, Folkestone and the Channel
Tunnel and Dover strait. The Illuminati in Dover and Folkestone the Chanel Tunnel project not completed and the greater Pas de Calais Economic Program. In London the Market situation, Europe, Asia and he USA, the same in Mauritius and Seychelles, those who came to my person to do something to rebuild and re leverage and re gear the dynamics - the initial core of that concept, the politic and changing of the greater Indian ocean dynamic, geopolitical. The US Officials and he white House and the Services.
Cassam Uteem, GCSK (born 22 March 1941) is a Mauritian political figure who served as President of Mauritius from 30 June 1992 to 15 February 2002 and is the longest serving President of Mauritius, having served for nine years.
After the 1995 General Election, Dr. Navin Ramgoolam became Prime Minister of Mauritius for the first time. However, he lost the 2000 General Election. In 2000,
The Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA), formerly known as the Indian Ocean Rim
Initiative and Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC), is an international organisation consisting of coastal states bordering the Indian Ocean. The IORA is a regional forum, tripartite in nature, bringing together representatives of Government, Business and Academia, for promoting co-operation and closer interaction among them. It is based on the principles of Open Regionalism for strengthening Economic Cooperation particularly on Trade Facilitation and Investment, Promotion as well as Social Development of the region. The Coordinating Secretariat of IORA is located at Ebene, Mauritius.
The organisation was first established as Indian Ocean Rim Initiative in Mauritius on March 1995 and formally launched on 6–7 March 1997 by the conclusion of a multilateral treaty known as the Charter of the Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Co-operation.The idea is said to have taken root during a visit of former South African Foreign Minister, Pik Botha, to India in November 1993. It was cemented during the subsequent presidential visit of Nelson Mandela to India in January 1995. Consequently, an Indian Ocean Rim Initiative was formed by South Africa and India. Mauritius and Australia were subsequently brought in. In March 1997, the IOR-ARC was formally launched, with seven additional countries as members: Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Yemen, Tanzania, Madagascar and Mozambique.
The Secretariat of the Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) is hosted by the
Government of the Republic of Mauritius which is based in Cyber City, Ebène, Mauritius. It manages, coordinates, services and monitors the implementation of policy decisions, work programmes and projects adopted by the Council of Ministers.
About Secretariat – Indian Ocean Rim Association – IORA
Seychelles and Mauritius sign Landmark Treaties for joint management of continental Shelf 2012 and
We are adding these historic issues here once more to show how government works, that of President J A Michel and that SIROP program, the vigorous efforts to get the EU, the UN and the USA to intervene, how his government, Officials given that we had entered into implementation agreement with F A Rene government his government just continued to use the synergy leveraging capacity for his government program and politic what ensued. The Opposition know otherwise meanwhile.
There is more to it - given our working situation in Kent had written and explained to several parties in Mauritius we needed help. The decision for a young relative in the form of former Mauritius leading female Athlete, the Olympic game. She is now married and mother of three super little children and reside in Paris -France. Her stay encouraged me/us to develop the SIROP Webs.Com Platform, information and resource hosted in Spain. How the synergy drove many important issues both in Seychelles and Mauritius across several issues and yet what the media wrote.
[https://www.un.org/Depts/los/clcs_new/submissions_files/musc08/sms08_summary_recommendations.pdf Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf 2008]
Recommendations prepared by the Subcommission established for the consideration of the Joint Submission made by Mauritius and Seychelles
A number of small-island and developing member countries face serious obstacles to managing and securing the benefits that may be associated with the management of ocean space, including the development of potentially lucrative marine resources.
On 11th January 2018, the Joint Commission administering the Joint Management Area (JMA), located over the Mascarene Plateau between Mauritius and the Seychelles, signed an Agreement with Spectrum Geo to acquire a 20,000 km broadband 2D Multi-Client seismic survey over the JMA. This new dataset, to be acquired and processed by Spectrum, lies within exploration blocks already delineated by the proactive Joint Commission under their Hybrid Open Door Licensing System. This modern broadband seismic dataset will offer a valuable tool for those interested in exploring this area, providing unique insight into the oil and gas prospectivity of the region.
Again upon President Danny Faure becoming President his visit to Mauritius at the Invitation of Prime Minister Pravin Jugnauth, a second more in depth Treaty and other agreements were signed.
Under the 10th Mauritius -Seychelles Joint Commission, the Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister Xavier -Luc Duval and his Seychelles counterpart Jean- Paul Adam has this morning signed a joint
agreement on 22 points. Cooperation in the economic , tourism and ocean economy is among the topics. Xavier -Luc Duval, for his part stressed the cultural affinity between Mauritius and the Seychelles.
SIROP - NEOM 2017 Mauritius issues
How many remembers the politic, economy of Mauritius in early 2017, when President Donald Trump took Office., his Office announcement and Foreign politic for the Indian ocean, Gulf Region, Iran, Pakistan, China, North Africa and the issues of BIOT. In comparison and contrast to President Barack Obama foreign same politic -The reaction of the EU Institutions and the media. The Alarm bell screaming everywhere his USA Home politic.
Situation in Syria, the Russian involvements, the massive invasion of Europe by refugee for that country and the region, Europe nations reaction and this almost causing a very serious crises in Europe the nations politic and reactions. The USA abrupt declaration on refugees and exiles, internal and foreign politic. The talk of starting a nuclear war to solve the situation using a Nuclear weapon by Israel to solve the Syria and Iran situation. The punishcious sanction announced on North Korea and its then Nuclear program and Testing sites - it s decision in the face of the threats to test several ballistic system capable of carrying nuclear war heads and their objective - At least President Barack Obama paid some kind of lop service to that SIROP program meaning - we addressing the many topic on resident Ronald Reagan, his office, the then US Intelligence Service, Pentagon, many other, the Senate in 1986/87 the Cold War, Instead. The world media and very many politic voice grave concern, the Vatican, the Chinese, Russia about the USA position - the African Union the UN voicing their very grave concern. We wee urging the Office of President Donald Trump to remember why he had been elected and that SIROP program workings the past 30 and global impact and the development in china and North Korea being left out and events in Asia and development and South Korea.
In UK there are some 200, 000 Mauritius national. What they read. listen and talk about British and world Politic. What they comment - What they know of the Seychelles Community working and
issues the past 30 years in UK even if the main media have not written about the, . We spent 4/5 days writing the above topic. We could have gone in depth instead. Meanwhile in London the Britexit politic, business and grave concern. In Islington those who know of our community issues and situation around Hermitage House, the churches the past 15 years and more. The Four Conservative government from PM Cameron. Since 2018 and early 2019 mean to be in Mauritius instead the Truth Committee and the Truth
Commission of Seychelles etc., what we have addressed them. There are some Families from Seychelles in Islington we have asked to keep an eye, they are supposed to be integrate working of our Community, the Jewish Community in the Borough and the Greeks thee death announcement of Mr Jeff Epstein and very many more past media issue and our Community. The biog Banks and city financial workings . The Occupy Movements and other issues. On 27/8/19, we had to attend to some very important issues regarding our place, the Council officials, the Police and many others - in the process we got to meet the daughter of a Leading Politicians from Seychelles , given President FA Rene , death, Sir James Mancham and President Mandela monument in the Peace Park of Seychelles - this young person in 1986/87, her respective family. Our Community workings in Hounslow and the many officials issues, our Seychelles South Africa politic then , Irish . All those who remembers the real politic of then UK the streets politics - The Asian Community be they Indian< Pakistani and others, Bangladesh. The crucial question what do our Community the young mothers and their friends understand by this NEOM thematic , their psychosis, the future of our community workings in Britain/London Admits the challenging Britexit political, economic, social , ethnic development. . We had said at the time there need to be a different world psychosis, dialogue and how they can be brought about in the world , what the politicians and media were talking about - the decision to use the capacity of the SIROP program to bring this about, the what we have
published about the NEOM thematic and North Korea reaction and subsequent USA , President Trump reacted, the USA, world media. The question we ask why cannot the North Korea, learn, take a leaf form Mauritius , this is not an invention , Mauritius was not meant in the Colonial Plan to be the Hong Kong of East Africa instead Zanzibar what ensued the Cold war
brutality and killing machines. Despotic political workings form both sides. Mauritius today. The big why and those who write the news and developments of Mauritius. The future of those Island Nations in the Face of the NEOM
Thematic . We are now into 2019 some two years since we initiated those issues. #We are going add what Wikipedia have published on NEOM.
The city was announced by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman at the Future Investment Initiative conference in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on October 24, 2017. He said it will operate independently from the “existing governmental framework” with its own tax and labor laws and an "autonomous judicial system."
Saudi Vision 2030(Arabic: رؤية السعودية 2030) is a plan to reduce Saudi Arabia's dependence on oil, diversify its economy, and develop public service sectors such as health, education, infrastructure, recreation and tourism. Goals include reinforcing economic and investment activities, increasing non-oil industry trade between countries through goods and consumer products, and increasing government spending on the military, manufacturing equipment and ammunition.
The first details were announced on 25 April 2016 by Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman. The Council of Ministers has tasked the Council of Economic and Development Affairs (CEDA) with identifying and monitoring the mechanisms and measures crucial for the implementation of "Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030".
After we had published this article 29/8/19 morning the publication "From underwater roads to real-life Quidditch - what life will be like in 2069" Having written that SIROP program contribution to avert a Nuclear war then 1986/87, "The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty" the big why that program was so written, From Sir James Mancham government 1975 onward, Seychelles Nation development program and regional diplomacy, the grave concern if there was a Nuclear war the BIOT , USA Leading Base would be targeted in a first strike - the Seychelles proximity, 95% of the inhabitant life destroyed, over the past 30 years have time and time stressed this grave important state of geopolitics, mentioned in most of Sir James Mancham books and International lectures and the politic of President FA Rene, his in depth knowledge of North Korea and China politic, this SIROP program - events the past 30 years and changing world politic working the past 5 years, the issues of NEOM we have addressed, it is all very well to have those future Tech and vision, what it requires to keep the world from breaking up until those Technology arrives those who will be alive to shoulder this responsibility not the current President of the USA.
The above sentence -
☀This Historic event decision President Donald Trump made the expected announcement yesterday during a Rose Garden speech, adding that before long, the U.S. will establish a sixth branch of the military, U.S. Space Force, for space defense..